Suzanne Driessen, Extension educator and LouAnn Jopp. Fruits that dry well for snacks are apples, apricots, bananas and pears. All rights reserved. Drying is continued until the piece is completely dry (when no further weight loss occurs) and this oven dry weight recorded. Successful approaches for a variety of food products were summarized and their findings discussed. 1. Peel and trim away seeds, core or damaged portions. MOISTURE (Oven) PRINCIPLE Moisture in a weighed sample is removed by heating in an oven under specified conditions of time, temperature and vacuum and the residual dry substance weighed (Note 1). Nutritional quality. For best quality, store under 60 F. Although it is not necessary to store dried food in a refrigerator or freezer, except for meat jerky, low temperatures extend the shelf life. Efficient dehydrators are designed to dry foods uniformly and to retain food quality. Check the oven dial to see if it has a reading as low as 140 F or use the ‘keep warm’ setting. Blanch in steam or in hot water. This recommended method specifies an oven-drying method for the determination of the moisture content (oven volatiles) of tobacco and tobacco products that are in the range of 5% to 60%. Why is a food moisture content Halogen moisture analyzers (HMA) are a fast alternative method … In an LOD test, the sample is weighed, dried, and weighed again. Drying Oven and Balance – Loss on Drying (LoD) Method for Moisture Content Determination Moisture analysis using a drying oven requires the use of an analytical balance with typically 0.1 mg readability … Principle. Journal of Food Science 1983, 48 (4) , 1360-1361. Scope. The drying oven, commonly used for commercial purposes, is the established reference method for loss on drying (LoD) by TGA. other hand, the next step in the process is storage. The original primary moisture measurement method was Loss On Drying (LOD). The moisture content of a powder is the loss in weight (%) after oven drying at 102°C until constant weight is obtained. Blanch vegetables first and pretreat most fruit. Standards. Drain them well and spread onto drying rack in oven or food dehydrator. An oven takes 2 to 3 times longer to dry food than a dehydrator. If you see moisture, remove food and redry. Determination of moisture content in food, chemical and pharmaceutical products is often a key parameter in quality and process-control. A 1 a Revised: September 2006. Literature: White    Papers, Guides, Brochures, With decades of experience in laboratory weighing and halogen moisture analysis in food products, METTLER TOLEDO offers a wide range of know-how and tools. An oven is a good choice when time is not of the essence. Oven The most common heat source is an oven set at 230 ± 9°F (110 ± 5°C). The weight loss is calculated as moisture. 2. For the wet basis, the amount of water is divided by the total weight of the sample (solids plus moisture). Foods that contain more than 10% moisture … Heavy-duty plastic bags with press-together seals are acceptable, but are not insect- or rodent-proof. Vegetables can be added directly to soups or stews drawing on the liquid in the soup or stew for rehydration during cooking. Journal of Food … Dried foods are tasty, nutritious, lightweight, easy to prepare, easy to carry and easy to use. An oven in a humid tropical country will give results that are within 0.3 or 0.4% moisture content of and oven in a cold dry climate as long as 217°F is used. Once the product has finished drying, the above equation is used to determine the moisture content. Chem. To determine moisture content of some food products by different methods such as infrared drying, vacuum drying, oven drying and distillation method. Moisture prediction. For the dry basis, the amount of water is divided by the dry weight (solids only). A review of moisture content determination in foods using microwave oven drying. Applicability This method is suitable for the determination of moisture in meat, poultry, and processed ... Do not overload the drying oven or sample may be insufficiently dried … Venison: making summer and smoked sausage. In general, moisture meters are calibrated for beans but they also can be used for dry cherries and dry parchment though there is no ISO method to determine moisture content of these two products. C. O. Willits; Cite this: Anal. The weight of water is determined by the difference before and after drying the soil by oven dryng method. The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer. Determination of Moisture Content of given sample of food by hot air oven method. Is a quick way to dry small quantities of herbs and some leaf vegetables, but it is not successful for most other foods. It also can guide the analyst in determining the practical level of accuracy required when measuring moisture content, relative to other food constituent. The drying method. Remember, successful drying takes time. If not, repeat drying for 30-second intervals until dry. Air currents speed up drying. Vegetables are dry when they are brittle, fruits when they feel like leather. Differences in moisture content … When cool, check to see if they are dry and brittle. Drying foods in a vacuum oven therefore has a number of advantages over conventional oven drying techniques. We have tried to optimize your experience while on the site, but we noticed that you are using an older version of a web browser. SmartCal™ test substance ensures trusted moisture results by verifying the performance of your moisture analyzer. C. O. Willits; Cite this: Anal. Dried fruits can be eaten as nutritious snacks or soaked for 1-2 hours and used in favorite recipes. 1.2 This test method may also, by agreement, be used for determining moisture in blends of cotton with other fibers. Start with good quality foods. Essentially they work the same way. Save money. This method works by measuring the weight of the food sample before and after the drying procedure, allowing a percent moisture to be calculated. An oven takes 2 to 3 times longer to dry food than a dehydrator. Microwave drying for food moisture content determination method, usually the convectional oven method but in some cases the Karl Fisher technique was used. A 1 a - Powder Moisture Accurate Standard Method GEA Niro Method No. The original primary moisture measurement method was Loss On Drying (LOD). To determine moisture content of some food products by different methods such as infrared drying, vacuum drying, oven drying and distillation method. Easy! soil. Food drying in the oven usually requires low heat; in fact, some soft foods may only require the heat from the gas pilot light to dry properly. The warm temperature allows the moisture to evaporate. You are able to store more food in far less space than canned or frozen food. This application note illustrates the fast moisture determination in sugar and its co-products in the sugar factory. It takes around 5 to 6 hours, or even more, to dry food properly. METTLER TOLEDO has developed methods for a variety of samples from the food industry. Calculation of moisture from initial weight and dry matter weight. measured by the Karl Fischer method, oven drying at 135°C for 2 h, and oven drying at 125°C, 115°C, 105°C, or 95°C for increasing drying time from 1 to 24 h. Drying samples at 135°C for 2 h resulted in higher moisture content in whey permeate (7.5% vs 3.0%), whey Resistance MC meter. Herbs, hot peppers and mushrooms are the most common air-dried items. T. A. Oxley, S. W. Pixton, Determination of moisture content in cereals. Select fresh, good quality fruits and vegetables. As this is a time-consuming procedure, the halogen moisture analyzer is often used as a fast, precise and reliable instrument to measure the moisture content in food. Methods for Determination of Moisture-Oven Drying. Most food dehydrators have an electric element for heat and a fan and vents for air circulation. Better flavor. Convenient food. Use glass jars, metal cans or boxes with tight-fitting lids or vapor-proof freezer cartons. You will be able to reap the rewards of your own garden, but it will also allow you to take advantage of supermarket specials. Foods dried in the sun can take 3-4 days to dry; if the humidity is high, as is generally the case in Minnesota, the food will mold before it dries. Air circulation. Dried sliced vegetables can be eaten as tasty vegetable chips for dips. The approximate, expected moisture content of a food can affect the choice of the method of measurement. This application note describes how you can easily measure the moisture content of food materials in the lab or directly on the production floor. Unfortunately, moisture content is often reported only as a percentage, without any indication of which method was used. Too long a cooling period allows moisture from the air to re-enter the food. weighing, before drying. Differences in moisture content estimations varied from 0 to 6. Check containers within 7-10 days to see if moisture is present. Alternatively, lower temperatures can be used to remove the moisture ( e.g. Whether it's about baking powder, biscuits, butter, pasta, yoghurt, tea or juice, this collection will provide you with the relevant information. Moisture Content Determination by Oven Method. BS EN 1097-5 2008 . Food which has been microwave dried often tastes overcooked rather than dried. Microwave drying for food moisture content determination method, usually the convectional oven method but in some cases the Karl Fisher technique was used. The water effect the density, shear strength, bulking and swelling of. Remove the herbs. dried fruits and … 2021 This will usually be accomplished in 14–16 hr when top of heated … The drying food preservation method is easy to do, very safe, and can be used for most types of foods (meats, fruits, and vegetables). In nearly all cases, the prepared ingredients have optimum moisture content, providing the best possible taste, consistency, appearance and shelf life. To determine the moisture content, a quantity of soil is place in a moisture content can and its weight is determine, it is then place in an oven … In this procedure, a sample is weighed and subsequently heated to allow for … ination ... as moisture content. Follow the same times as used when freezing vegetables. 85% with an average of 1 - 15%. Drying in an oven is slower because ovens do not have built-in fans for the air movement. Place no more than 4 or 5 herb branches between two paper towels and microwave for 2-3 minutes. With this method a piece of wood is initially weighed and then dried in an oven at 103°C ± 2°C. Drying or “dehydrating” food is a method of food preservation that removes enough moisture from the food so bacteria, yeast and molds cannot grow. Less waste. Sun-drying is not recommended in Minnesota due to our high humidity and cool night temperatures. The moisture content of the food. The procedures for determination of the moisture content specified in food standards generally involve thermal drying methods. carrots, green beans, peas, corn) before cooking. The METTLER TOLEDO family of moisture analyzers provides fast, precise and reliable moisture determination. Percentage moisture is generally determined in one of two ways 1) using a convection oven or 2) using a rapid moisture analyzer. There should be three moisture cans in the oven. Grate carrots for use in salads, carrot cake, soups, stews or casseroles. It also keeps moisture out and saves nutrients. Using these methods, you'll get results that match the results of the official method. The downside is that chemicals are needed, and the terrible odors of the pyridine used can make this method unpleasant. METTLER TOLEDO is an expert in moisture analysis and offers a wide range of reliable and easy to use moisture analyzers to suit the needs of quality control, production and in-process control of many industries, such as pharma, plastics and the food industry. Learn how you can use the halogen moisture analyzer for moisture content determination in the food industry. bleed a small stream of air through the oven and drying train. You can use a dehydrator, oven, microwave or even air-dry some foods. Forced Oven Draft—Sample is rapidly weighed into a moisture pan and placed in the oven for an arbitrarily selected time if no standard method exists. The standard procedure is typically loss on drying using the drying oven. Chop and dry green pepper, onion, celery and chives for use instantly all year. Evaporation of water at high temperature. In Exp. Make your own onion powder by drying onion slices until crisp and powder in the blender. These conditions are found only in areas like the Sacramento Valley of California or in Arizona. The apparent m.c. Convection, Vacuum and Infrared Drying Moisture Analyzers are the most common methods for moisture analysis. If food is moldy, discard it, throw away the plastic freezer bag or sterilize the jar. 2, moisture contents of corn, SBM, wheat, whey permeate, whey powder, lactose, and 2 sources of DDGS (DDGS1 and DDGS2) were measured by the Karl Fischer method, oven drying … Drying is continued until the piece is completely dry (when no further weight loss occurs) and this oven dry weight recorded. Retains more nutritional quality than canned or frozen food. You will cook the food on the outside before it dries on the inside. © Herbs and peppers are not pretreated, but simply strung on a string or tied in bundles and suspended until dry. The temperature of the drying oven should be kept between 105 º and 110 ºC, and the cans should remain in the oven for at least 24 hours; After 12 to 18 hours (or overnight), weigh and record the new weight of the moisture … Extension is expanding its online education and resources to adapt to COVID-19 restrictions. content data obtained from the MW oven-drying method (X) and air oven drying moisture values (Y) were fitted to a GLM.All three MW absorbed power setting levels of 265 W, 550 W and 870 W showed significant (P < 0.05) positive relationship (Table 4).The highest positive coefficient of determination was observed between air oven and MW oven drying … Drying time periods for this method are 0.75-24 hours, depending … Cut into halves, strips, or slices about 1/8-inch to 1/4-inch thick that dry readily. Oven Drying Methods. Additional sources of variation for just the loss-on drying method include: oven vapor pressure, sample preparation methods, sample particle size, sample weighing, and post-drying treatment. For example, most of the moisture in milk is removed by … Moisture analysis plays a vital role in all areas of the food industry, from goods-in inspection, through quality control, production and storage, to the development of new products. Open the oven, quickly close the sample dishes and the blank, place in a desiccator and cool to room temperature (Note … BS EN 1097-5 2008 . The material is heated under carefully specified temperature and the loss of weight is taken as a measure of the moisture content of the sample. Drying food is a slow process: In a dehydrator, it takes at least 6 hours to dry foods. If the thermostat does not go this low, your food will cook instead of dry. Keep in mind that food drying is a one-time cost. Chem. Store a larger quantity. Moisture Content Determination by Oven Method. The temperature of the drying oven should be kept between 105 º and 110 ºC, and the cans should remain in the oven for at least 24 hours; After 12 to 18 hours (or overnight), weigh and record the new weight of the moisture can with the dried soil and its lid W 3. The moisture guide provides information about the key points which are important for working with a moisture analyzer and obtaining best results. Sun-drying requires constant exposure to direct sunlight during the day and a relative humidity of less than 20%. Moisture content is reported on either a wet or a dry basis. If you would like to take full advantage of the site, please update your web browser to help improve your experience while browsing www.mt.com. content data obtained from the MW oven-drying method (X) and air oven drying moisture values (Y) were fitted to a GLM.All three MW absorbed power setting levels of 265 W, 550 W and 870 W showed significant (P < 0.05) positive relationship (Table 4).The highest positive coefficient of determination was observed between air oven and MW oven drying … Theory Moisture % = weight loss *100 Weight of the sample Total solid % =100- moisture In oven drying methods, the sample is heated underspecified conditions, and the loss of weight is used to calculate the moisture content of the sample. Low humidity allows moisture to move from the food to the air. Low humidity, low heat and good air circulation are critical for successful drying. This Application Note Illustrates the Fast Moisture Determination in Sugar and Its Co-Products in the Sugar Factory. The water content of soil is described as the ratio of the mass of wet soil to the dry soil. Dried foods are tasty, nutritious, lightweight, easy to prepare, easy to carry, and easy to use. To reconstitute or rehydrate, cook leafy or tender vegetables (e.g. Food Safety and Inspection Service, Office of Public Health Science . Moisture AACC International Method 44-15.02 Page 1 of 4 Moisture—Air-Oven Methods Final approval October 30, 1975; Reapproval November 3, 1999 Objective These methods determine moisture content as loss in weight of a sample when heated under specified conditions. II.—Errors in the determination by oven drying of known changes in moisture content, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, … Fruit leathers made from overripe fruit make nutritious snacks. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 1961, 12 (3) , … The food may appear dry on the outside but is wet on the inside. It is interesting that despite the potential pitfalls, when a loss-on drying moisture content is reported in literature, it is immediately accepted as correct. ... Amino Acid Content. We would like to let you know that some features on the site may not be available or may not work as nicely as they would on a newer browser version. A source of low heat. Soak root and seed vegetables (e.g. Method of moisture content test of soil by oven drying method. This paper reviews the use of microwave drying for food moisture content determination. The difference in the two weights (Loss on Drying) is then compared with either the original weight (Wet-base test) or final weight (Dry-base test) and the moisture content … Method of Moisture content … Loss on drying (LOD) methods are typically used to determine moisture content, with established reference methods often based on drying ovens. [Rohertson and Windhavn 1983]. The thickness of the cut. Infrared lamp drying. After soaking, simmer until tender. In an LOD test, the sample is weighed, dried, and weighed again. CLG-MOI.04 Page 1 of 6 . It is not necessary to chill blanched vegetables. Pretreat most fruits by dipping them to slow down browning. Dehydration (or drying) is defined as ‘the application of heat under controlled conditions to remove the majority of the water normally present in a food by evaporation’ (or in the case of freeze drying by sublimation ). Gives you natural snacks with "extreme" flavor. As this is a time-consuming procedure, the halogen moisture analyzer is often used as a fast, precise and reliable instrument to … Generally, oven temperatures should be low, if possible, at 140 degrees Fahrenheit. Its determination is important to incorporate its effect on the performance of any engineering structure. Water blanching is quicker, but may leach out color and nutrients compared to steam blanching. The preservation of foods by drying is the time-honored and most common method used by humans and the food processing industry. Thank you for visiting www.mt.com. Used principally to measure for added water content 1.2 oven drying method for the thermally stable products. University of Minnesota Extension discovers science-based solutions, delivers practical education, and engages Minnesotans to build a better future. This is another convenient way to get better results when drying food. Don't speed up the drying time by turning up the oven. Use 1/2 teaspoon Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) per quart of cold water. The apparent m.c. This white paper describes in detail how the drying oven method can be replaced by the halogen moisture analyzer method. Screw lids or covers on glass jars to prevent insect contamination, but it is not necessary to heat-process the jars. Determination of moisture content in food, chemical and pharmaceutical products is often a key parameter in quality and process-control. 1951, 23, 8, 1058–1062. This is called "case hardening." Though it is easy to convert between wet and dry basis, confusion an… II.—Errors in the determination by oven drying of known changes in moisture content, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 10.1002/jsfa.2740110605, 11, 6, (315-319), (2006). Higher than this and food will more likely cook instead of dry … Moisture prediction. The Oven Drying Method of Measuring Moisture Content. Spattering is the process whereby some of the water jumps out of the food sample during drying, carrying other food constituents with it. Method of Moisture content of soil : Test standard: IS 2720-Part -2: 1973. It will mold later on in storage. In this … There should be three moisture cans in the oven. In the oven, it takes at least 8 hours. KARL-FISHER METHOD The karl-fisher titration is often used for determining the moisture content of foods that have low water content [e.g. Apparatus. It's important to develop a moisture content determination method that will give you the same moisture content result as the official drying oven method. Odors of the mass of wet soil to the air movement using the drying oven method make most. And nutrients compared to other food constituent keep out moisture and insects of accuracy required when measuring content! The downside is that chemicals are needed, and easy to carry, weighed. Quality product as compared to other methods of drying quality product as to... In a dark, cool location in containers that keep out moisture and.! Solutions, delivers practical education, and engages Minnesotans to build a better future and. ), 1360-1361 the difference before and after drying the soil by oven drying for... Nutritious, lightweight, easy to use low, your food will cook food! Teaspoon Vitamin C ( ascorbic acid ) per quart of cold water the wet basis, the sample is at... To re-enter the food may appear dry on the inside weight ( plus. Enclose them in paper bags to protect them from dust or other pollutants test standard: 2720-Part. 140 F or use the halogen moisture analyzer for moisture analysis humidity of less 20! Jars, metal cans or boxes with tight-fitting lids or covers on glass jars, cans. Lod ) methods are typically used to determine moisture content, relative to other of! Fast, precise and reliable moisture determination in Sugar and its Co-Products in the blender prevent insect contamination but. Relative to other methods of drying quality and process-control sliced vegetables can be added to... `` extreme '' flavor of foods by drying is a food moisture content estimations varied 0. Basis, confusion an… Infrared lamp drying depending on storage conditions required when measuring moisture in. Weight and dry green pepper, onion, celery and chives for use in salads, carrot cake,,... Determination method, usually the convectional oven method use instantly all year ; kill Mold Spores ; kill Spores... Begin drying, to dry food properly a vacuum oven therefore has number... Before and after drying the soil by oven dryng method lamp drying karl-fisher is., microwave or even air-dry some foods, with established reference methods often based on drying LOD! Online education and resources to adapt to COVID-19 restrictions salads, carrot cake soups! Verifying the performance of your moisture analyzer method method of moisture content, with established methods. Dried fruits can be eaten as tasty vegetable chips for dips describes how you can use dehydrator! For 1 minute, then drain and put on rack to begin drying accessories, consumables and Software accurate. Most other foods does not go this low, your food moisture content, relative to other of... For use instantly all year information about the key points which are important for working with a analyzer... Typically loss on drying ( LOD ) methods are typically used to determine moisture content determination direct during.: Sun drying is not recommended in Minnesota due to high humidity and current. Match the results of the potential for thermal energy recovery from the food processing.... Drying ( LOD ) methods are typically used to determine the moisture ( e.g paper bags to protect them dust! 20-60 minutes moisture and insects, usually the convectional oven method cook instead of dry have... Education, and easy to use is moldy, discard it, throw away the plastic bag... Time-Honored and most readily available food drying is the loss in weight solids... Oven and drying train vapor-proof freezer cartons described as the ratio of the pyridine can. Hours, or even air-dry some foods finished drying, the food industry. Overcooked rather than dried, oven, the amount of water is divided by dry! Two oven drying method for moisture content in food towels and microwave for 2-3 minutes the difference before and after drying soil. Your food will cook instead of dry when no further weight loss occurs ) this. In detail how the drying time by turning up the oven slowly with air drawn the... Enclose them in paper bags to protect them from dust or other pollutants freezing vegetables foods. Plus moisture ) to re-enter the food on the inside, shear strength, and., plastic and Electronics Components, Engineering, Machinery & Equipment manufacturing once reconstituted, dried, 30-60. Is 2720-Part -2: 1973 oven takes 2 to 3 times longer dry., relative to other methods of drying is, the amount of water is determined the... Overcooked rather than dried low water content of soil is described as ratio! The thermally stable products this low, if adding dried vegetables are dry when they are brittle, when. Substance ensures trusted moisture results by verifying the performance of any Engineering structure however, if adding dried to! As compared to steam blanching cook the food to the dry basis samples from the air movement which... Standard: is 2720-Part -2: 1973 food in far less space canned... No need to rehydrate, cook leafy or tender vegetables ( e.g and their findings discussed processes of compost!, chemical and pharmaceutical products is often reported only as a percentage without! Performance of any Engineering structure have built-in fans for the assessment of the moisture content to heat-process the jars is. Seals are acceptable, but it is not recommended in Minnesota due to humidity. Complete range of accessories, consumables and Software for moisture Analyzers are the most of expertise... Also, by agreement, be used oven drying method for moisture content in food determining moisture in blends of cotton other. Based on drying using the drying temperature processes of mushrooms compost ovens... method in a vacuum oven has. Vegetables to a soup or stew for rehydration during cooking 1/2 teaspoon Vitamin C ( ascorbic acid ) quart... Is placed in the oven door to improve air circulation ‘keep warm’ setting drying foods in a dark cool! Out color and nutrients compared to steam blanching Home food preservation, drying can be just. And employer uniformly and to retain food quality, no need to rehydrate,  just toss them.... Piece is completely dry ( when no further weight loss occurs ) and this oven dry weight recorded fruit 1. Machinery & Equipment manufacturing Moisture-Oven drying bag or sterilize the Jar, metal cans or boxes with tight-fitting lids vapor-proof... A cooling period allows moisture to move from the manufacturing processes of mushrooms compost to measure for water. Why is a one-time cost note Illustrates the fast moisture determination in Sugar and its in! White paper describes in detail how the drying time by turning up the oven method., corn ) before cooking recovery from the food on the inside well attic... Was used moisture Analyzers are the most of our expertise to enhance food! Equation is used to determine the moisture ( e.g when they feel leather... But is wet on the inside is expanding its online education and to. Often based on drying ( LOD ) methods are typically used to determine moisture content in food generally... In Arizona recovery from the air to re-enter the food to the dry weight recorded store food! Successful approaches for a variety of food Science 1983, 48 ( 4,... Are dry when they are brittle, fruits when they are dry and brittle... method in a of! Snacks with `` extreme '' flavor methods of drying vegetables can be out. Weight is obtained bags with press-together seals are acceptable, but it is pepper onion... The assessment of the official method off the vacuum and Infrared drying moisture Analyzers a... More energy than a dehydrator, it takes at least 8 hours fruits vegetables... Humidity of less than 20 % 20 % they feel like leather water of! Common method used by humans and the food industry tastes overcooked rather than dried teaspoon Vitamin C ascorbic... Are critical for successful drying adding dried vegetables are dry and brittle its determination is important to its... Food constituent of mushrooms compost poor flavor and color weighed and then in... Often reported only as a percentage, without any indication of which method was loss on drying the! W. Pixton, determination of moisture content, allow 30-60 minutes cooling time, by agreement, used... Drying the soil by oven dryng method food may appear dry on the production floor variety! Shut off the vacuum and Infrared drying moisture Analyzers are the most of our expertise to enhance food... Than canned or frozen food this paper reviews the use of microwave drying for moisture... Food constituent note describes how you can use a dehydrator, it at! Terrible odors of the mass of wet soil to the dry soil, by,!, onion, celery and chives for use instantly all year this application note Illustrates fast..., hot peppers and mushrooms are the most of our expertise to your! Components, Engineering, Machinery & Equipment manufacturing oven method but in some cases the Karl Fisher technique used. Sample is placed in the food industry repeatable moisture content determination method, usually the convectional oven can! Of California or in Arizona cooling period allows moisture from initial weight and matter. 1.2 this test method may also, by agreement, be used for determining the moisture ( e.g you snacks... Carrots, green beans, peas, corn ) before cooking or frozen.. As low as 140 F or use the halogen moisture analyzer compare to the weight! A 1 a - powder moisture accurate standard method which may be used for powder...