Ethanol extracts (100 mg/kg, p.o.) Supplements?, that compared the seven-fruit-and-vegetables-a-day diet to the three-fruit-and … Thrice a day, Pounded and taken orally with warm water. Similar finding was reported amongst Swati THs residing in Swaziland [46]. Steam is inhaled (nasally) under blanket. Use of single therapies by Bapedi THs might also be due to simplifying the preparation and because of the nature of asthma. Extract is taken orally. Some of the above-mentioned botanical families documented in our study are repeatedly noted as predominant in various ethnobotanical surveys focusing on asthma. The questionnaire was designed to capture information on (i) local names of the plants used by Bapedi THs to manage asthma; (ii) plant parts used; (iii) state/s of used plant part; and (iv) mode/s of preparation and administration of remedies. Thrice a day. There are a number of top medications such as short or long acting beta2 agonist (preferably by inhalation) and inhaled steroid that an asthmatic patient can receive during exacerbations [3]. It can eliminate benzene, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, trichloroethylene, xylene… However, the taxa G. herbaceum [58], O. europaea [59], O. ficus-indica [60], and P. granatum [61] are all used in other continents of the world comparably to Bapedi THs, subsequently, indicating that these species might be helpful as asthma remedies. Extract is taken orally. [23] who questioned Zulu THs and Nzue [45] who worked with Rastafarians of Western Cape Province of South Africa. Similarly, depending on individual healer two to five table spoons of pounded plant parts were mainly prescribed with a metal cup (500 ml) full of warm water. Overall, a total of 153 recipes were used by Bapedi THs to treat asthma. With the exclusion of using an exotic S. molle as asthma medication which was culturally validated in Peru [79], application of the rest of species is reported for the first time in this study across South Africa and Africa as a continent. The above can also be said for 19.3% (n=20) of plants, namely, Adansonia digitata, Adenia fruticosa, Aloe spp., Citrus limon, Clerodendrum glabrum, Cucumis metuliferus, Englerophytum magalismontanum, Erythrina lysistemon, Eucomis autumnalis, Euphorbia schinzii, Lantana rugosa, Leonotis leonurus, Maerua juncea, Olea europaea, Pseudognaphalium luteo-album, Solanum catombelense, Solanum panduriforme, Vepris reflexa, Warburgia salutaris, and Xerophyta retinervis, which were utilised by THs in particular municipalities located in one district. Thrice a day, Boiled for 5–7 minutes. Decoction is taken orally. Therefore, we have correlated FL and UM in order to establish the accurate FL of each species. However, this form of medicine is not very popular. Supplementary medications for asthma sufferers include leukotriene receptor antagonists and theophylline or slow release beta2 agonist tablets [14]. Extract is taken orally. Amongst the 104 plants recorded in the current study, vast majority (50.9%, n=53) were used by THs to exclusively manage asthma, and 25.9% (n=27) for both asthma and the following symptoms: fatigue, nasal congestion, tight chest, wheeze, laboured breathing, nasal congestion and wheezing, fatigue and wheezing, and fatigue and laboured breathing, as well as fatigue, laboured breathing, nasal congestion, and wheeze. For example, a metal cup (500 ml) full of liquid preparations was prescribed by all THs three times a day (morning, midday, and evening). 4. Adenia spinosa and L. caffer which were used to treat two conditions could be of great importance in the management of various ailments. Its restricted uses for tight chest to Bapedi THs across Africa might somewhat be attributed to the fact that it is a legally declared drug; thus any person who is found in its possession without a permit is prosecuted. Accordingly, S. birrea (UM = 140 and FL = 100; asthma), S. natalensis (UM = 140 and FL = 100; asthma), E. axillare (UM = 140 and FL = 100; asthma), C. ternatum (UM = 140 and FL = 100; asthma), C. transvaalensis (UM = 140 and FL = 100; asthma), M. obovata (UM = 140 and FL = 100; asthma), L. caffer (UM = 140 and FL = 100; asthma, and UM = 17 and FL = 10.8; tight chest), C. sexangularis (UM = 58 and FL = 89.2; fatigue), A. digitata (UM = 68 and FL= 100; fatigue), G. herbaceum (UM = 70 and FL= 100; asthma), A. afra (UM = 25 and FL = 75.7%; asthma), A. spinosa (UM = 25 and FL = 30.4; asthma and UM = 57 and FLl = 69.5; fatigue), P. obliquum (UM = 25 and FL = 100), E. schinzii (UM = 19 and FL = 100; asthma), M. oleifera (UM = 17 and FL = 100; fatigue), and S. speciosus (UM = 15 and FL = 100; asthma), respectively, scored the highest FL amongst the plants used by Bapedi THs for asthma and related symptoms, thus suggesting their potential as therapies against the noted corresponding specific conditions. Extract is taken orally. Steam is inhaled (nasally) under blanket. Thrice a day. Data was collected from May 2017 to October 2017 using a semistructured interview with 140 THs during face-to-face interviews, supplemented by field trips for participant’s observation and specimen collections. However, air-purifying traits are more beneficial. 2018, Article ID 2183705, 33 pages, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2183705, 1Technology Transfer Office, Research Administration and Development Department, University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa, 2Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Center, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa. Few (n=2) of Bapedi THs who use A. sativum in the present study harvest it from home gardens. https://grandmaremedy.com/14-plants-for-cough-lung-infections-and-bronchitis Comparably to our findings, Naoumi [17] reported the use of M. indica and Z. mays as medicines for this ailment by THs in Cameroon. The present study therefore will be the first in South Africa to exclusively focus on ethnobotanical knowledge and practices of plants implicated in the treatment of these conditions. Steam is inhaled under (nasally) blanket. Van Staden, “Hypoxis (Hypoxidaceae) in African traditional medicine,”, J. Ojewole, D. R. Kamadyaapa, and C. T. Musabayane, “Some in vitro and in vivo cardiovascular effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea Fisch & CA Mey (Hypoxidaceae) corm (African potato) aqueous extract in experimental animal models,”, S. S. Chaudhari and G. S. Chaudhari, “A review on plumbago zeylanica linn. Both traditional leaders and healers were enlightened about the nature of the project including aim and objectives, using their mother tongue of Sepedi. However, its use for wheeze is presently restricted to the Bapedi THs. Of these taxa only use of H. hemerocallidea for asthma [63] and fatigue [64], as well as P. africanum for the latter condition [65], was previously reported in ethnobotanical literature. Although it is an Indian weed, nowadays, … Boiled for 5–9 minutes. Harvested parts from certain plant were prepared using more than one method or a same technique was used differently amid THs (Table 1). However, this postulation warrants further investigations. In fear of this most THs might retaliate to divulge its uses to researchers. Boiled for minutes. A reconnaissance study was firstly carried out in each selected village to (i) request permission from local tribal leaders to conduct this study within their areas of governance and (ii) ask THs who were conveniently (i.e., with the help of local leaders and healers) selected to participate in the survey. For instance, the Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Fabaceae were also represented with higher number of species in a study conducted in India [34]. Lettuce Overall, the larger number of species documented in the present study is recorded for the first time in literature as asthma and/or related symptoms remedies. The traditional applications of some species used by these THs to treat asthma and related conditions are comparable to that noted in literature amongst the various cultures in South Africa, other African countries, and elsewhere; thus demonstrating that there is a cultural link between diverse ethnic groups of the world, and exchange of traditional healing knowledge pertinent to these afflictions. The present study is the first to explore plants used traditionally to treat asthma and related conditions in South Africa. His work and botany passion has made The Herbal Resource what it is. They do more than just brighten up a room, they also clean the air. Extract is taken orally. However, as far as our literature search went, application of A. sativum for laboured breathing is presently restricted to Bapedi THs in Africa but used as such by THs in India [74]. B. Kirenga and M. Okot-Nwang, “The proportion of asthma and patterns of asthma medications prescriptions among adult patients in the chest, accident and emergency units of a tertiary health care facility in Uganda,”, E. J. Marsden, S. W. Somwe, C. Chabala, J. Steam is inhaled (nasally) under blanket. Asthma Action Plan for Students. For instance, it was multiused as medicine to heal asthma, fatigue, laboured breathing, nasal congestion, and wheeze. In general, all these settlements are economically and socially marginalized [28]. Younger et al., “Asthma and allergies in Jamaican children aged 2–17, K. C. L. Carlsen, G. Haland, C. S. Devulapalli et al., “Asthma in every fifth child in Oslo, Norway: A 10-year follow up of a birth cohort study,”, S. Nafti, S. Taright, M. El Ftouh et al., “Prevalence of asthma in North Africa: the Asthma Insights and Reality in the Maghreb (AIRMAG) study,”, J. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Overall all taxa recorded in this study are known medicinal plants in South Africa and thus form part of local traditional ethnopharmacopoeia of various cultures in this country. Thrice a day, Boiled for 8 minutes and extract is taken orally. – Anti-inflammatory plants that reduce inflammation, being a good alternative to asthma inhalers, because of the side effects that its use entails. Amongst these plants, 37% (n=10) comprising Aloe spp., A. fruticosa, Adenia spinosa, Callilepis laureola, Cyperus sexangularis, Elephantorrhiza burkei, Hypoxis hemerocallidea, M. juncea, Peltophorum africanum, and Protea caffra were stated by THs as cure for asthma and fatigue. What is the Difference Between Hemp and Marijuana? Hossan et al. The knowledge of most plants used in the treatment of asthma, the plant part which is effective in treatment is confined to very few persons who are engaged in folklore medicine. Another 7.4% (n=2) of species (Schinus molle and O. lanceolata) were multiused by Bapedi THs for asthma, fatigue, and laboured breathing. Van Wyk, B. Thrice a day, Boiled for 5 minutes. The maximum fidelity level of 100% was reported for 71.1% (n=74) of species, with the majority having extremely lower use-mention (UM) against a particular ailment (Table 1). They may suggest additional treatment, such as a preventer inhaler. Furthermore, of an estimated 3.9 million South Africans diagnosed with asthma, 1.5% die of this condition annually [12]. However, general ethnobotanical studies carried out in other African countries, to name a few, Uganda [19], Kenya [20], Lesotho [21], and Botswana [22], highlighted that THs of other cultures do treat asthma and related conditions. Nonjinge and Tarr [40] who worked with Zulu THs of KwaZulu-Natal Province noted A. amatymbica as a valued medicine for asthma. Plants Used by Bapedi Traditional Healers to Treat Asthma and Related Symptoms in Limpopo Province, South Africa, Technology Transfer Office, Research Administration and Development Department, University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa, Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Center, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantab/alipedeamat.htm, http://memim.com/warburgia-salutaris.html, Boiled for 3–5 minutes. Overall, applications of an overwhelming majority of the above-listed species by THs are recorded for the first time in this study. In 2008 at least three hundred million people worldwide were diagnosed with asthma and over 250,000 asthma-related annual deaths were reported [3]. Nonjinge and Tarr [ 40 ] who questioned Zulu THs and Nzue [ 45 ] who Zulu! 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