Prior to the discovery of the sponge rubber racket, the game of table tennis did not requi… In those early days, the scoring system was the same as in lawn tennis. [22] Seemiller paired inverted rubber with anti-spin rubber. Organized tennis is played according to … Table tennis became an Olympic sport in 1988, with singles and doubles competition for men and women. A basic table tennis paddle is used by table tennis players. “The differences of national culture are reflected in table tennis, which makes the culture of table tennis a strong national character.”( Fang Chujie 2017.) In addition to games between individual players, pairs may also play table tennis. The racket is held at the ready with a bent arm. Most professional players nowadays, such as Ding Ning, Timo Boll and Zhang Jike, primarily use loop for offense. A lob can have nearly any kind of spin. A flip is not a single stroke and can resemble either a loop drive or a loop in its characteristics. Drive is often the bread-and-butter stroke of a player's arsenal, used mostly for keeping the ball in play, … [33], According to ITTF rule 2.13.1, the first service is decided by lot,[34] normally a coin toss. The ball, which is spherical and hollow, was once made of white celluloid. The speed limitation of the topspin stroke is minor compared to the backspin stroke. Some famous choppers include Joo Sae-hyuk and Wu Yang. The original Pong consisted of two paddles that players used to volley a small ball back and…. 146,165,353 stock photos online. Despite high speed play and rapid exchanges, a player can see clearly what side of the racket was used to hit the ball. [18][19] First, the older 38 mm (1.50 in) balls were officially replaced by 40 mm (1.57 in) balls in October 2000. https://www.britannica.com/sports/table-tennis, Table Tennis - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Table tennis equipment is relatively simple and inexpensive. The USA generally uses the term "paddle" while Europeans and Asians use the term "bat" and the official ITTF term is … Unlike any of the techniques mentioned above, corkspin (or "drill-spin") has the axis of spin relatively parallel to the ball's trajectory, so that the Magnus effect has little or no effect on the trajectory of a cork-spun ball: upon bouncing, the ball will dart right or left (according to the direction of the spin), severely complicating the return. It is achieved by placing the thumb and index finger on either side of the bottom of the racquet head and holding the handle with the rest of the fingers. For example, if the previous order of play is A→X→B→Y, the order becomes X→B→Y→A after the change of service. The counter-hit is usually a counterattack against drives, normally high loop drives. By that time, players had begun increasing the thickness of the fast sponge layer on their paddles, which made the game excessively fast and difficult to watch on television. The object is to hit the ball so that it goes over the net and bounces on the opponent’s half of the table in such a way that the opponent cannot reach it or return it correctly. When the player on the receiving side is not ready and the service is delivered. For the opponent to have time to realize a serve is taking place, the ball must be tossed a minimum of 16 centimetres (6.3 in) in the air. Table tennis strokes generally break down into offensive and defensive categories. Many players today combine inverted and long-pipped rubber. The original association had broken up about 1905, though apparently the game continued to be played in parts of England outside London and by the 1920s was being played in many countries. [24] The rules say that the ball shall bounce up 24–26 cm (9.4–10.2 in) when dropped from a height of 30.5 cm (12.0 in) onto a standard steel block thereby having a coefficient of restitution of 0.89 to 0.92. The name "ping-pong" then came to describe the game played using the rather expensive Jaques's equipment, with other manufacturers calling it table tennis. Choosing the correct equipment to fit your skill level and playing style is very important. If the sequence of serving and receiving is out of turn or the ends are not changed, points scored in the wrong situation are still calculated and the game shall be resumed with the order at the score that has been reached. ITTF currently includes 220 member associations. Physiological responses and characteristics of table tennis matches determined in official tournaments. Let’s see some amazing facts and trivia about it! The rate was twice as high as the next sport, basketball, which featured 15% of naturalized players. For measurements we used Wingate test (WAnT). [3] The table tennis official rules are specified in the ITTF handbook. [25], The table is 2.74 m (9.0 ft) long, 1.525 m (5.0 ft) wide, and 76 cm (2.5 ft) high with any continuous material so long as the table yields a uniform bounce of about 23 cm (9.1 in) when a standard ball is dropped onto it from a height of 30 cm (11.8 in), or about 77%. Since only one side of the racquet is used to hit the ball, two contrasting rubber types can be applied to the blade, offering the advantage of "twiddling" the racket to fool the opponent. The racket may be any size, weight, or shape. [7] This was intended to make games more fast-paced and exciting. [57] Thus, though backed off the table by tens of feet and running to reach the ball, a good defensive player can still win the point using good lobs. Another difference is that unlike backspin and topspin, sidespin will have relatively very little effect on the bounce of the ball, much in the same way that a spinning top would not travel left or right if its axis of rotation were exactly vertical. For example, the European Table Tennis Union (ETTU) is the governing body responsible for table tennis in Europe. In the mid-1950s Asia emerged as a breeding ground of champions, and from that time the men’s team event has been won by either Japan or China, as has the women’s event, though to a lesser extent; North Korea also became an international force. A point is scored by the player for any of several results of the rally:[40]. [21] The average size of the blade is about 17 centimetres (6.7 in) long and 15 centimetres (5.9 in) wide, although the official restrictions only focus on the flatness and rigidity of the blade itself, these dimensions are optimal for most play styles. [17], After the 2000 Olympics in Sydney, the ITTF instituted several rule changes that were aimed at making table tennis more viable as a televised spectator sport. Author information. Table tennis strokes generally break down into offensive and defensive categories. Penhold styles are popular among players originating from East Asian countries such as China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. The ball, which may be coloured white, yellow, or orange, weighs about 0.09 ounce (2.7 grams) and has a diameter of about 1.6 inches (4 cm). Due to the power involved in offensive strokes, often an opponent simply cannot recover quickly enough to return the blocked shot, especially if the block is aimed at an unexpected side of the table. For example, if the order of play is A→X→B→Y at beginning of the first game, the order begins with X→A→Y→B or Y→B→X→A in the second game depending on either X or Y being chosen as the first server of the game. The type of ball is also different from tennis ball since it is very light. The name table tennis was adopted in 1921–22 when the old Ping-Pong Association formed in 1902 was revived. The table is rectangular, 9 feet by 5 feet (2.7 metres by 1.5 metres), its upper surface a level plane 30 inches (76 cm) above the floor. Since 2008, a team event has been played instead of the doubles. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Fig.13 Ec/Ep vs. Ep. The aim of the research was to analyze anaerobic characteristics of Slovenian elite table tennis male and female players. Backspin is where the bottom half of the ball is rotating away from the player, and is imparted by striking the base of the ball with a downward movement. [31] Common wood types include balsa, limba, and cypress or "hinoki", which is popular in Japan. Table Tennis Ontario; Register as a member & sign up for UTTTC emails! The DR, TPT, and RPT were not different between 2 groups ( p > 0.05). [48] Chinese penholders favour a round racket head, for a more over-the-table style of play. Thereafter if the service and 13 following strokes of the server are returned by the receiver, the server loses the point. The ITTF also changed the rules on service to prevent a player from hiding the ball during service, in order to increase the average length of rallies and to reduce the server's advantage, effective in 2002. For example, when the last order of play before a pair score 5 points in the final game is A→X→B→Y, the order after change shall be A→Y→B→X if A still has the second serve. The racket is primarily perpendicular to the direction of the stroke, and most of the energy applied to the ball results in speed rather than spin, creating a shot that does not arc much, but is so fast that it can be difficult to return. The opponent strikes the ball twice successively. However, backspin also makes it harder for the opponent to return the ball with great speed because of the required angular precision of the return. The international rules specify that the game is played with a sphere having a mass of 2.7 grams (0.095 oz) and a diameter of 40 millimetres (1.57 in). [11] The International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) followed in 1926. Play is fast and demands quick reactions. If a game is unfinished 15 minutes after it has begun, the rest of that game and the remaining games of the match proceed under the Expedite System. A player will typically execute a smash when the opponent has returned a ball that bounces too high or too close to the net. The blade of a racket, or bat, is usually made of wood, is flat and rigid, and may be covered with a thin layer of ordinary stippled, or pimpled, rubber, which may be laid over a thin layer of sponge rubber and may have the pimples reversed. 1 year after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 15 when registered and has never represented another association, 3 years after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 15 when registered and has already represented another association, 5 years after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 18 but at least 15 years of age when registered, 7 years after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 21 but at least 18 years of age when registered, 9 years after the date of registration, if the player is at least 21 years old when registered, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 19:59. Tennis, original name lawn tennis, game in which two opposing players (singles) or pairs of players (doubles) use tautly strung rackets to hit a ball of specified size, weight, and bounce over a net on a rectangular court. This was followed by E.C. [38] Thereafter, the server and receiver must alternately make a return until the rally is over. Spinning the ball alters its trajectory and limits an opponent's options, giving the hitter a great advantage. A match shall consist of the best of any odd number of games. World Championship of Ping Pong uses old-fashioned wooden paddles covered with sandpaper. [56] A chop is essentially a bigger, heavier push, taken well back from the table. This is known as "closing the racket". If the expedite system is introduced while the ball is not in play, the previous receiver shall serve first. A few months later, the ITTF changed from a 21-point to an 11-point scoring system (and the serve rotation was reduced from five points to two), effective in September 2001. Facts about Table Tennis present the information about ping-pong sporting game. J Strength Cond Res 24(4): 942-949, 2010-The purpose of this study was to verify the physiological responses and the match characteristics of table tennis and also to compare these responses in 2 different performance-level athletes from official tournaments. As a receiver under the expedite system, completing 13 returns in a rally. Smashing use rapid acceleration to impart as much speed on the ball as possible so that the opponent cannot react in time. Table tennis is governed by the worldwide organization International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF), founded in 1926. Forehand driveThe drive is executed close to the table so the ball may be struck at the peak of its arc. The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net. As this system is not standard across manufacturers, the only way a ball may be used in official competition is upon ITTF approval[24] (the ITTF approval can be seen printed on the ball). The racket is held closed and near to the ball, which is hit with a short movement "off the bounce" (immediately after hitting the table) so that the ball travels faster to the other side. Since 1969 a plastic similar to celluloid has been used. Whatever combination is used, each of the two sides of a paddle must be different in colour. This requires precision, since the ball's spin, speed, and location all influence the correct angle of a block. [1][12] London hosted the first official World Championships in 1926. [7][20] This increased the ball's air resistance and effectively slowed down the game. Rally were analyzed as table tennis strokes generally break down into offensive and defensive categories game of the.. Official rules are specified in the new York times, 31 % the! 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